4. pirtûka ku dawiyê de min beşên derbarê kurdan de xwend. pirtûkê de ji bo kurdan navê Carduchian hatiye bikaranîn. tenê li derekê jî resterast kurd hatiye gotin. kurd weke "kevanên wan bi qasê bejnên wan in" hatiye tesfîrkirin. hatiye gotin ku tîrên wan gelekê bi hêz in ku mertalên yewnanan qul dikin û leşkerên yewnanan tîrên wan ji erdê berhev kirine û weke rîm bi kar anîne.
pirtûka anbasîs berî zayînê sala 401ê de hatiye nivîsandin.
Xenophonê ku sala 430ê berî zayînê li atînayê hatiye dinyayê, yek ji şagirtên feylezofê navdar sokrates e.
piştî şerê peleponezê ya ku yewnan têk çûbûn, atînayê xwest ku qralê persan Artaxerxes têk bibe. ji bo têkbirina wî jî birayê wî yê bi navê cyrus, bi kar anîn. bi artêşek ku ji 10.000 leşkeran pêk tê yê peretî, dan ber destê cyrus, da ku êrîşî birayê xwe bike û serokatiya persan bigire destê xwe.
ji bo vê armancê tevî van 10.000 leşkerên hellen'an, cyrus êrîş li birayê xwe kir û li mezopotamyayê li Cunaxa'yê, şerê Cunaxa pêk hat. vî şerî de eslê xwe de artêşa ku tê de 10.000 leşkerên yewnan jî hebû, bi ser ket. lê ji aliyê din ve, ji ber ku cyrus hatibû kuştin, qral neguherî û yê serketî dîsa bû Artaxerxes.
min beşên derbarê kurdan de ji pirtxkê derxist. beşên derbarê kurdan ya îngîlîzî û kurteya wergera wê ya ku min bi kutek û heft bela kir, li jêr e:
...girtiyan wan agahdar kirin ku aliyê bakur, ku ji wir hatine, ên ji babîlê ber bi medyayê, riya başûr a heta susa û ectabana, aliyê din ê rubarê, aliyê rojavayê heta lydia û loniya'yê û beşa çiyayan a li hemberî great bear: hemû aîdê gelê kardoxiyan e (yanî carduchians yanî kurd)
ew mirov -gotin girtiyan- li çiyayan dijîn û gelek girêdayî şer in û ne bin emrê qral de ne. ewqas ku berê rojekê, artêşeke ku ji 120.000 leşkeran pêş dihat êrîş kir ku welatê wan bistîne lê yek leşker jî ji vê şerê nezivîriye. her çiqas carina bi waliyên persan re agirbest û peymanan çêkin jî têkiliya wan niha weke "ew ê bên û me dorpêç bikin û emê herin û wan dorpêş bikin" ye, dibêjin girtî.
piştî bihîstina van agahiyan, li ber qumandan du riyên çûna mal hebûn. dawiyê de qumandan biryar da ku zorê bidin riya ku li ser çiyayan derbas dibe ku ev rê jî dikeve nav welatê kurdan. dema ji vir derbas bibin wê bigihana ermenîstanê; welatê mezin û dewlemend yê aîdê orontas. û ji ermenîstanê pê ve wê hêsan bûya ku herin kîjan aliyê ve. li ser vê yekê fermana vê meşa zehmet hat dayîn. tirsa şefê wan ew bû ku wê rêwitiya ji nava çiyayan wê gelekî zehmet bûya, fermendar ferman da ku piştî xwarina şîvê herkes amûr û çenteyên xwe bistîne û ji bo meşê amade be.
...dawiya gihana çemê dîcleyê, ne mimkun bû mirov ji wê derbas bibe û çiyayên kardoxiyan ber bi vê çemê ve dirêj dibûn. qumandan tekane çareyê weke derbasbûna ji çiyayên kurdan dît. sedema bijartina vê riyê hinekî sedema ewlehî hinekî jî hinekî lez bû...
...kardoxiyan bajarokên xwe (ji ber têketina yewnanan) terikandibûn û bi zarok û jinên xwe hilkişiyabûn çiyayan. xaniyên wan bi bronzê hatibû quwetkirin û gelek alavên mitfaqê yên hellen'an li malên wan hebûn....
...dihat hêvîkirin û kardoxî bihêlin û alîkarî bikin ku ew ji çiyayan bi rihetî derbas bibin. lê mixabin kardoxiyan ne bersivek dan wan ne jî tu îşaretek din yê dostane nîşan dan. niha hellen ji têketinê daketin bajêr û wext jî zû ve bûbû şev. tevahiya rojê bi hilkişîn û daketinê derbas bûbû. tam vî wextî komeke kardoxiyên berhevbûyî êrîşek li zilamên li paşiya kerwanê kirin. her çiqas zilamên biçûk bûn jî, bi tîran û keviran hinekan kuştin û hinekan jî birîndar kirin. ya rastî hatina hellen'an ji bo wan bûbû surprîz ger ne wisa bûya û bi hejmarek mezintir êrîş bikirana, wê rêjeyek mezin ya artêşê bihata wendakirin.bi vê bûyerê, artêşê xwe kir çar parçe û bi şev, xwe li bajerokê veşartin. kardoxiyan agiran vedabûn û çavên wan li ser wan bû...
roja dîtir yewnanan li bajarokê bi vî bûn û li vir hêza xwe dîsa berhevkirin. dema 7 rojên dawîn hate ber çavên wan, dîtin ku zehmet û êşa ku di rojên derbasbûna ji welatên kurdan de jiyane, ji tevahiya êş û zehmeta li şerê persan û eziyeta tissaphernes zêdetir bû.
... li çiyayçn kardoxiyan, şeva wan ya dawîn bû û li serê çiyayan dikariyan bibînin ku komên mezin yên kardoxiyan berhevbûyî ne. sîya bêhevitiyeke kûr, dîsa rihm wan pêçiya. dema li aliyeke dinêriyan rubarek ku nikare were derbaskirin hebû û li aliyê din dijminê ku li benda wan e ku werin ku êrîşî wan bikin, hebû.
...wextê ku xenophon lê derxist ku li aliyê din tişt baş dimeşin, cîda çû aliyê yekîneyên ku ji bo derbasbûnê amade bûne û dît ku kardoxî ji bo êrîşê dadikevin.
(çi vir behsa rû bi rû mana wan ya bi kardoxiyan tê kirin ku tê gotin ku hellen bi leza ku hew ji wan tê xwe avêtina rubarê û piraniya wan derbasî aliyê din bûne)
derbasbûna wan serkeftî bû û niha ber bi warê ermeniyan ve dimeşiyan...
(he prisoners informed them that the regions south, through which they had come, belonged to the district towards Babylon and Media; the road east led to Susa and Ecbatana, where the king is said to spend summer and spring; crossing the river, the road west led to Lydia and Ionia; and the part through the mountains facing towards the Great Bear, led, they said, to the Carduchians (1). They were a people, so said the prisoners, dwelling up on the hills, addicted to war, and not subject
to the king; so much so that once, when a royal army one hundred and twenty thousand strong had invaded them, not a man came back, owing to the intricacies of the country. Occasionally, however, they made truce or treaty with the satrap in the plain, and, for the nonce, there would be intercourse: "they will come in and out amongst us," "and we will go in and out amongst them," said the captives.
After hearing these statements, the generals seated apart those who claimed to have any special knowledge of the country in any direction; they put them to sit apart without making it clear which particular route they intended to take. Finally the resolution to which they came was that they must force a passage through the hills into the territory of the Kurds; since, according to what their informants told them, when they had once passed these, they would find themselves in Armenia--the rich and large territory governed by Orontas; and from Armenia, it would be easy to proceed in any direction whatever. Thereupon they offered sacrifice, so as to be ready to start on the march as soon as the right moment appeared to have arrived. Their chief fear was that the high pass over the mountains must be occupied in advance: and a general order was issued, that after supper every one should get his kit together for starting, and repose, in readiness to follow as soon as the word of command was given.
(In the preceding portion of the narrative a full account is given of the incidents of the march up to the battle, and of the occurrences after the battle during the truce which was established between the king and the Hellenes, who marched up with Cyrus, and thirdly, of the fighting to which the Hellenes were exposed, after the king and Tissaphernes had broken the treaty, while a Persian army hung on their rear. Having finally reached a point at which the Tigris was absolutely impassable owing to its depth and breadth, while there was no passage along the bank itself, and the Carduchian hills hung sheer over the river, the generals took the resolution above mentioned of forcing a passage through the mountains. The information derived from the prisoners taken along the way led them to believe that once across the Carduchian mountains they would have the choice either of crossing the Tigris--if they liked to do so--at its sources in Armenia, or of going round them, if so they preferred. Report further said that the sources of the Euphrates also were not far from those of the Tigris, and this is actually the case. The advance into the
country of the Carduchians was conducted with a view partly to secrecy, and partly to speed, so as to effect their entry before the enemy could occupy the passes.)
It was now about the last watch, and enough of the night remained to allow them to cross the valley under cover of darkness; when, at the word of command, they rose and set off on their march, reaching the mountains at daybreak. At this stage of the march Cheirisophus, at the head of his own division, with the whole of the light troops, led the van, while Xenophon followed behind with the heavy infantry of the rearguard, but without any light troops, since there seemed to be no
danger of pursuit or attack from the rear, while they were making their way up hill. Cheirisophus reached the summit without any of the enemy perceiving him. Then he led on slowly, and the rest of the army followed, wave upon wave, cresting the summit and descending into the villages which nestled in the hollows and recesses of the hills.
Thereupon the Carduchians abandoned their dwelling places, and with their wives and children fled to the mountains; so there was plenty of provisions to be got for the mere trouble of taking, and the homesteads too were well supplied with a copious store of bronze vessels and utensils which the Hellenes kept their hands off,
abstaining at the same time from all pursuit of the folk themselves, gently handling them, in hopes that the Carduchians might be willing to give them friendly passage through their country, since they too were enemies of the king: only they helped themselves to such provisions as fell in their way, which indeed was a sheer necessity.
But the Carduchians neither gave ear, when they called to them, nor showed any other friendly sign; and now, as the last of the Hellenes descended into the villages from the pass, they were already in the dark, since, owing to the narrowness of the road, the whole day had been spent in the ascent and descent. At that instant a party of the Carduchians, who had collected, made an attack on the hindmost men, killing some and wounding others with stones and arrows--though it was quite a small body who attacked. The fact was, the approach of the Hellenic army had taken them by surprise; if, however, they had mustered in larger force at this time, the chances are that a large portion of the army would have been annihilated. As it was, they got into quarters, and bivouacked in the villages that night, while the Carduchians kept many watch-fires blazing in a circle on the mountains, and kept each other in sight all round.
During this day they bivouacked in the villages which lie above the plain of the river Centrites (1), which is about two hundred feet broad. It is the frontier river between Armenia and the country of the Carduchians. Here the Hellenes recruited themselves, and the sight of the plain filled them with joy, for the river was but six or seven furlongs distant from the mountains of the Carduchians. For the moment then they bivouacked right happily; they had their provisions, they had also many memories of the labours that were now passed; seeing that the last seven days spent in traversing the country of the Carduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost them more suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of the king and Tissaphernes put together. As though they were truly quit of them for ever, they laid their heads to rest in sweet content.
(1) I.e. the Eastern Tigris
At the point where they had themselves been last night, up on the mountains, they could see the Carduchians collected in large numbers and under arms. A shadow of deep despair again descended on their souls, whichever way they turned their eyes--in front lay the river so difficult to ford; over, on the other side, a new enemy threatening to bar the passage; on the hills behind, the Carduchians ready to fall upon their rear should they once again attempt to cross. Thus for this
day and night they halted, sunk in perplexity. But Xenophon had a dream. In his sleep he thought that he was bound in fetters, but these, of their own accord, fell from off him, so that he was loosed, and could stretch his legs as freely as he wished (2). So at the first glimpse of daylight he came to Cheirisophus and told him that he had hopes that all things would go well, and related to him his dream.
Xenophon, as soon as he saw that things were going well on the other side, fell back with all speed to join the troops engaged in crossing, for by this time the Carduchians were well in sight, descending into the plain to attack their rear.
Cheirisophus was in possession of the higher ground, and Lycius, with his little squadron, in an attempt to follow up the pursuit, had captured some stragglers of their baggage-bearers, and with them some handsome apparel and drinking-cups. The baggage animals of the Hellenes and the mob of non-combatants were just about to cross, when
Xenonphon turned his troops right about to face the Carduchians. Vis-a-vis he formed his line, passing the order to the captains each to form his company into sections, and to deploy them into line by the left, the captains of companies and lieutenants in command of sections to advance to meet the Carduchians, while the rear leaders would keep their position facing the river. But when the Carduchians saw the rearguard so stript of the mass, and looking now like a mere handful
of men, they advanced all the more quickly, singing certain songs the while. Then, as matters were safe with him, Cheirisophus sent back the peltasts and slingers and archers to join Xenophon, with orders to carry out his instructions. They were in the act of recrossing, when Xenophon, who saw their intention, sent a messenger across, bidding them wait there at the river's brink without crossing; but as soon as he and his detachment began to cross they were to step in facing him
in two flanking divisions right and left of them, as if in the act of crossing; the javelin men with their javelins on the thong, and the bowmen with their arrows on the string; but they were not to advance far into the stream. The order passed to his own men was: "Wait till you are within sling-shot, and the shield rattles, then sound the paean and charge the enemy. As soon as he turns, and the bugle from the river sounds for 'the attack,' you will face about to the right, the rear rank leading, and the whole detachment falling back and crossing the river as quickly as possible, every one preserving his original rank, so as to avoid tramelling one another: the bravest man is he who gets to the other side first."
The Carduchians, seeing that the remnant left was the merest handful (for many even of those whose duty it was to remain had gone off in their anxiety to protect their beasts of burden, or their personal kit, or their mistresses), bore down upon them valorously, and opened fire with slingstones and arrows. But the Hellenes, raising the battle hymn, dashed at them at a run, and they did not await them; armed well enough for mountain warfare, and with a view to sudden attack followed
by speedy flight, they were not by any means sufficiently equipped for an engagement at close quarters. At this instant the signal of the bugle was heard. Its notes added wings to the flight of the barbarians, but the Hellenes turned right about in the opposite direction, and betook themselves to the river with what speed they
might. Some of the enemy, here a man and there another, perceived, and running back to the river, let fly their arrows and wounded a few; but the majority, even when the Hellenes were well across, were still to be seen pursuing their flight. The detachment which came to meet Xenophon's men, carried away by their valour, advanced further than they had need to, and had to cross back again in the rear of Xenophon's men, and of these too a few were wounded.
The passage effected, they fell into line about mid-day, and marched through Armenian territory, one long plain with smooth rolling hillocks, not less than five parasangs in distance; for owing to the wars of this people with the Carduchians there were no villages near the river. The village eventually reached was large, and possessed a palace belonging to the satrap, and most of the houses were crowned with turrets; provisions were plentiful.
"But wherever we come, be it foreign or Hellenic soil, and find no market for provisions, we are wont to help ourselves, not out of insolence but from necessity. There have been tribes like the Carduchians, the Taochians, the Chaldaeans, which, albeit they were not subject to the great king, yet were no less formidable than independent. These we had to bring over by our arms. The necessity of getting provisions forced us; since they refused to offer us a market. Whereas some other folk, like the Macrones, in spite of their being barbarians, we regarded as our friends, simply because they did provide us with the best market in their power, and we took no single thing of theirs by force. But, to come to these Cotyorites, whom you claim to be your people, if we have taken aught from them, they have themselves to blame, for they did not deal with us as friends, but shut their gates in our faces. They would neither welcome us within nor furnish us with a market without. The only justification they alleged was that your governor (2) had authorised this conduct.)